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Avian Influenza Infection in Humans

Updated: Tuesday, August 21, 2018 4:37 PM EDT
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Avian Influenza Infection in Humans

Although avian influenza A viruses usually do not infect humans, more than 100 confirmed cases of human infection with avian influenza viruses have been reported since 1997. For example, the World Health Organization (WHO) maintains situation updates and cumulative reports of human cases of avian influenza A (H5N1). Most cases of avian influenza infection in humans are thought to have resulted from direct contact with infected poultry or contaminated surfaces. However, there is still a lot to learn about how different subtypes and strains of avian influenza virus might affect humans. For example, it is not known how the distinction between low pathogenic and highly pathogenic strains might impact the health risk to humans. (For more information, see “Low Pathogenic versus Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza Viruses” on the CDC Influenza Viruses Web page.

Because of concerns about the potential for more widespread infection in the human population, public health authorities closely monitor outbreaks of human illness associated with avian influenza. To date, human infections with avian influenza A viruses detected since 1997 have not resulted in sustained human-to-human transmission. However, because influenza A viruses have the potential to change and gain the ability to spread easily between people, monitoring for human infection and person-to-person transmission is important.

Instances of Avian Influenza Infections in Humans

Confirmed instances of avian influenza viruses infecting humans since 1997 include:

Symptoms of Avian Influenza in Humans

The reported symptoms of avian influenza in humans have ranged from typical influenza-like symptoms (e.g., fever, cough, sore throat, and muscle aches) to eye infections (conjunctivitis), pneumonia, acute respiratory distress, viral pneumonia, and other severe and life-threatening complications.

Antiviral Agents for Influenza

Four different influenza antiviral drugs (amantadine, rimantadine, oseltamivir, and zanamivir) are approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of influenza; three are approved for prophylaxis. All four have activity against influenza A viruses. However, sometimes influenza strains can become resistant to these drugs, and therefore the drugs may not always be effective. For example, analyses of some of the 2004 H5N1 viruses isolated from poultry and humans in Asia have shown that the viruses are resistant to two of the medications (amantadine and rimantadine). Monitoring of avian influenza A viruses for resistance to influenza antiviral medications is ongoing.

Bird flu ground zero could have been Candaba, says FAO study - Business Mirror
21 Aug 2018 at 8:26am
Bird flu ground zero could have been Candaba, says FAO study - Business Mirror
21 Aug 2018 at 8:26am
Bird flu confirmed on Russian 500000-bird farm - Agriland.co.uk
20 Aug 2018 at 10:38am
Bird flu confirmed on Russian 500000-bird farm - Agriland.co.uk
20 Aug 2018 at 10:38am
Davao still safe from bird flu - Sun.Star
19 Aug 2018 at 8:07am
Davao still safe from bird flu - Sun.Star
19 Aug 2018 at 8:07am
Tuaran villagers affected by bird flu outbreak hope to be justly ... - New St...
18 Aug 2018 at 9:11pm
Tuaran villagers affected by bird flu outbreak hope to be justly ... - New St...
18 Aug 2018 at 9:11pm
Reuters: Russia reports severe bird flu outbreak - Kyiv Post
17 Aug 2018 at 3:27am
Reuters: Russia reports severe bird flu outbreak - Kyiv Post
17 Aug 2018 at 3:27am
Russia reports severe bird flu outbreak: OIE - Reuters
17 Aug 2018 at 2:31am
Russia reports severe bird flu outbreak: OIE - Reuters
17 Aug 2018 at 2:31am
Bird flu outbreak in Tuaran expected to be contained within a month - New Str...
17 Aug 2018 at 12:43am
Bird flu outbreak in Tuaran expected to be contained within a month - New Str...
17 Aug 2018 at 12:43am
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16 Aug 2018 at 7:51am
˘4m Bird Flu compensation for 36 farmers still unpaid - Finance ministry blam...
16 Aug 2018 at 7:51am
Malaysia to clarify bird flu outbreak to Indonesia following poultry ban - Th...
15 Aug 2018 at 5:49pm
Malaysia to clarify bird flu outbreak to Indonesia following poultry ban - Th...
15 Aug 2018 at 5:49pm
Wong denies bird flu in Sabah due to ministry's negligence - Free Malaysia Today
15 Aug 2018 at 4:59pm
Wong denies bird flu in Sabah due to ministry's negligence - Free Malaysia Today
15 Aug 2018 at 4:59pm
OSHA revamps bird flu webpage - Safety+Health magazine
15 Aug 2018 at 10:12am
OSHA revamps bird flu webpage - Safety+Health magazine
15 Aug 2018 at 10:12am
Fowl farmers' fears persist 1 year after bird flu flare-up - Business Mirror
15 Aug 2018 at 5:59am
Fowl farmers' fears persist 1 year after bird flu flare-up - Business Mirror
15 Aug 2018 at 5:59am
Malaysia Vet Services DG to clarify bird flu outbreak incident to Indonesian ...
15 Aug 2018 at 2:51am
Malaysia Vet Services DG to clarify bird flu outbreak incident to Indonesian ...
15 Aug 2018 at 2:51am
Bird flu outbreak well-contained in Tuaran - The Sun Daily
14 Aug 2018 at 6:21am
Bird flu outbreak well-contained in Tuaran - The Sun Daily
14 Aug 2018 at 6:21am
Bird flu outbreak: Sabah points to poultry smuggling as possible contributing...
13 Aug 2018 at 10:34pm
Bird flu outbreak: Sabah points to poultry smuggling as possible contributing...
13 Aug 2018 at 10:34pm
Sabah halts all poultry exports following bird flu detection in Tuaran - The ...
13 Aug 2018 at 12:59am
Sabah halts all poultry exports following bird flu detection in Tuaran - The ...
13 Aug 2018 at 12:59am
Bird flu outbreak: Sabah Vet Dept tells residents not to hide fowls - New Str...
11 Aug 2018 at 4:33am
Bird flu outbreak: Sabah Vet Dept tells residents not to hide fowls - New Str...
11 Aug 2018 at 4:33am
Bird flu kills one in Vietnam - www.worldbulletin.net
10 Aug 2018 at 4:54am
Bird flu kills one in Vietnam - www.worldbulletin.net
10 Aug 2018 at 4:54am
No spread of bird flu to humans in Tuaran - The Star Online
8 Aug 2018 at 11:42pm
No spread of bird flu to humans in Tuaran - The Star Online
8 Aug 2018 at 11:42pm
Bird flu threat: Brunei halts poultry imports from Sabah - Borneo Bulletin On...
8 Aug 2018 at 2:52am
Bird flu threat: Brunei halts poultry imports from Sabah - Borneo Bulletin On...
8 Aug 2018 at 2:52am